Western Africa has many undescribed species of shovelhead worms. Some of them are now described in this publication.
Western Africa has many undescribed species of shovelhead worms. Some of them are now described in this publication.
We congratulate our guest student Polina from Moscow State University with her first publication based on studies of the MIWA material in our collections. The paper describes species complexes of the genus Aponuphis from the West Afircan coast and analyses their relationships from mitochondrial sequences.
P.B. Borisova, D.M. Schepetov, N.E. Budaeva (2018) Aponuphis Kucheruk, 1978 (Annelida: Onuphidae) from western African waters. Invertebrate Zoology 15(1): 19–41. Reprint requests can be directed to Dr. Budaeva, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr Sara Castillo has recently finished her PhD (September 2017) with a thesis on the taxonomy and diversity of gastropods and bivalves from North-west Africa (Morocco to Sierra Leone), based on material collected during cruises of the Norwegian and FAO Nansen Programme and other scientific projects.
The Natural History Museum of Bergen has since 2005 collaborated in the benthic sampling of the Nansen Programme, and between 2013–16 the Museum was awarded funding from the American JRS Biodiversity Foundation to aid on the study and DNA barcode of the western African invertebrate benthic fauna. During this period Sara visited Bergen to participate in a workshop on to the taxonomy of western Africa bivalves organised by the Museum. The “opisthobranchs” gastropods (sea slugs and other related lineages) were not covered by Sara Castillo’s research and in Bergen we have so far only studied in depth the philinid snails (fam. Philinidae sensu lato).
Sara is visiting the Museum for 6-weeks (1st Nov–15th Dec) to study both ours and the University of Vigo’s collection of opisthobranchs from West Africa. Representatives of all morphotypes will be DNA barcoded and identified to species level. Because of its diversity and difficult taxonomy in western Africa the nudibranch family Arminidae will receive special attention and the barcoding work will be complemented with anatomical characterization of species backed by scanning electron microscopy. Our goals are to produce an inventory of the West Africa “opisthobranchs” collected during the Nansen programme and a taxonomic review of arminid nudibranchs from the region.
Marla, a PhD student supervised by Dr Tammy Horton (NOC), Dr Andrew Gates (NOC), Dr Lawrence Hawkins (UoS), Dr Miranda Lowe (NHM) and Dr Gordon Paterson (NHM) has spent 6 weeks in the invertebrate collections at UiB.
Marla was studying the amphipods from the family Phoxocephalidae from the Western African Waters, focussing particularly on the amphipods from the sub-family Harpiniinae [crustacea; Amphipoda; Phoxocephalidae; Harpiniinae].
Phoxocephalid amphipods are highly speciose and abundant in deep sea sediments globally. Species identity is critical to understanding mechanisms driving observed biodiversity patterns and to asses community change. The aim of the project while in Bergen, was to use both DNA barcoding and traditional morphological taxonomic approaches in order to create a robust library of Phoxocephalidae species from the poorly known West African waters. Large scale projects such as Marine Invertebrates of West Africa (MIWA) provide the perfect opportunity for collaborative work.
The MIWA project submitted over 2700 tissue samples from over 600 morphospecies for DNA barcode sequencing, including Crustaceans, Echinoderms, Molluscs and Polychaetes. Out of these, 45 samples were from the family Phoxocephalidae, the target taxa. Working with Dr Anne-Helene Tandberg and Prof Endre Willassen, the sequenced MIWA Phoxcephalid voucher specimens were dissected and mounted as permanent microscope slides to morphologically score them. Later, the phylogenetic analysis based on molecular and morphological characters will be compared. Each appendage was photographed on the modular (Leica CTR6000) microscope and the images were stacked, resulting in incredible photos!
Out of the 2700 tissue samples, a total of 1450 sequences were obtained (54% sequencing success rate). This is not uncommon as the ‘Universal’ barcode protocol often needs to be adapted for different taxon groups.
Working with Anne Helene within the molecular biology labs at the University of Bergen, currently developing taxon specific primers and PCR conditions for the Harpiniinae MIWA specimens which were not successfully sequenced with the Universal primers. As a starting point, an additional 13 MIWA specimens had tissue extracted for DNA, then dissected and permanent slides were made in order to morphologically score them. Each appendage was photographed and the images stacked. At this time the primers and PCR conditions are a work in progress, but we will keep you posted. However, this was a very successful trip resulting in a lot of data to analyse!
As explained in a previous post, we submitted tissues samples from the sea stars (class Asteroidea) that were suitable for DNA-analysis to the CCDB lab and the BOLD database. We just recieved the preliminary results, which are very promising!
The next step now will be to collaborate further with our asteroid taxonomist, and evaluate the genetic data combined with traditional morphology based taxonomy. Combining barcoding and morphology in this way helps us explore and understand the biodiversity better.
Stay tuned for updates!
Polina, a master student jointly supervised by Dr. Nataliya Budaeva (UiB) and Dr. Alexander Tzetlin (Moscow State University) has spent a month in the invertebrate collections studying the bristle worms from the family Lumberineridae from the Western African Waters.
Lumbrinerid genera can be distinguished by the morphology of the jaw apparatus consisting of ventral fused mandibles and two rows of dorsal maxillary plates. Polina learned how to dissect the jaws and identified at least 11 genera of Lumbrinerids from the studied material. She is also planning to used microCT back at the Moscow University to study the morphology of the jaws in 3D. During her stay, Polina has studied the composition and morphology of chaetae, another character used in generic and species identification in Lumbrinerids, using SEM.
In addition, all studied specimens will be used in the molecular analysis to reconstruct the first phylogeny of the family Lumbrineridae based on genetic data. Please see the full description of the project: http://miwa.w.uib.no/allprojects/polychaeta-projects/
For the past three weeks, Lloyd, who is a Senior Environmental Scientist at Envaserv Research Consult in Ghana, has been visiting us to continue work on the project we have running on the Glyceriformia in the MIWA-material. This project was initiated when Lloyd and Willams were here visiting in November 2015. They worked closely together with Tom, using the available literature to identify and select animals for barcoding, and to get a feel for the diversity of the group.
Similar projects on other polychaete families have taught us that the current knowledge of species diversity and distribution of the region is not comprehensive – there are more species than what is currently described in the literature, so we attempted to barcode representatives of all the morphologically distinct groups – it’s highly likely that material contains species that are new to science.
From this work, 19 “species” were identified based on morphology, and several representatives for each were selected for genetic barcoding: A voucher specimen is selected, photographed, and tissue sampled. The tissue sample is sent to the CCDB lab in Canada for sequencing, whilst the photo and metadata (such as where the animal was collected, who has identified it, at which institution is the voucher specimen stored etc.) is uploaded to the international database named BOLD – Barcode of Life Datasystems, as part of the iBOL (international barcode of life) initiative.
We’ve continued the work, both with sorting more samples, thus making more material available for studies, and by doing detailed examinations of the specimens we have. This is done using both regular light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
During his most recent stay, Lloyd continued the work with identifying animals and selecting specimens that we will submit for barcoding – we’ll try to get the next plate sent in by the end of the month, and hope for a high(er) success rate and further insights in the diversity of the Glyceriformia of the region.
Thank your for visiting, and for all your hard work, Lloyd! We hope to see you again soon.
Kate, from Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales, has been back visiting us, and is giving us an update on how the work on the magelonid project is coming along
I came to the University Museum of Bergen (UMB) back in November 2015 to work on shovelhead worms (Magelonidae) collected as part of the MIWA-project. In particular, the priority was to select specimens for DNA sequencing from each of the putative species that had been identified whilst studying the material back at the National Museum Wales in Cardiff.
The initial results came back with sequences from 45 of the 72 tissue samples that were taken, mostly from the MIWA project but also European magelonid samples for direct comparison. The corresponding tree showed some interesting results and included sequences from 13 of the 20 putative species that had been highlighted previously. However, sequences from the other species identified, and further sequences from those species that only had one or two were still needed.
So work continued back in Wales, looking for further specimens for sequencing. However, it was felt that it would be beneficial to come back to Bergen in order to further study the DNA voucher specimens that had sequences already, comparing them morphologically to new material selected. It was also hoped to select alternative specimens for sequencing which had previously failed.
So, I travelled back to UMB in January 2017, just in time to catch the end of the snow, before the rains came again to spend two weeks studying MIWA material. Each of the DNA Voucher specimens were studied in great detail, making detailed notes, drawings and full taxonomic descriptions of each.
This enabled the selection of further specimens of the same species for sequencing but also highlighted specimens that showed differences. Consequently 74 additional specimens have now been chosen for sequencing. These have all been photographed and are now ready for tissue sampling before being sent off to Canada for sequencing.
Whilst those samples are being sequenced, the process of drawing, imagining, measuring and describing each species will begin back in Cardiff with formalin fixed samples.
With so many potential new species, this could be quite a lengthy process but luckily some of this work has already started. Work commenced looking at the more stout species within samples. These species usually posses a pigment band in the posterior thorax and unlike most magelonids are known to build sediment tubes. Until now only one species with a pigment band has been described from African waters, Magelona cincta, Ehlers, 1908 from Algoa Bay, South Africa. However, a further five species with pigment bands have been found in the MIWA material, four of which are believed to be new to science. Full taxonomic descriptions and a key to these species have already been produced and the process of imaging and drawing these will begin in Cardiff next week.
Now the process of waiting for the sequences begins and wondering if it will throw any surprises into the ring. So back to Cardiff armed with two notebooks full of notes and drawings (and three less pencils!) ready to being drawing and describing.
Thank you for visiting (always a pleasure!), and best of luck with the myriad of new species!
We have done substantial amounts of COI barcoding on various animal groups through the MIWA-project. You can find all the specimens that we have submitted for barcoding here. Of the Echinodermata we have previously submitted Echinoids (sea urchins) and Ophiuroids (brittle stars). Currently we are focusing on the class Asteroidea, the sea stars.
There were not terribly many sea stars in our material, and all of the Asteroids were identified when we had asteroid specialist Anna Dilman visiting last spring.
Part of this material is fixated in ethanol and therefore available for genetic work, and we’ve been waiting for some more material to come along so that we would have enough samples to fill the 95 wells in a plate for barcoding and uploading to the BOLD-database. Now we’ve gotten some supplemental material, and are preparing a plate of mainly Asteroidea. We are also including a few brittle stars, as we had six Gorgonocephalidae (basket stars) waiting to be barcoded, and they are plain too cool to pass up. We did a blog post about basket stars in our InvertebrateCalendar, click here to read more about the head of the Medusa.
Why “faded”? Well, in real life they are amazingly beautiful critters, looking something like this:
But once a specimen of the same species – this is a Astropecten aranciacus – has been dragged up by a trawl and marinated in ethanol for a while, it looks more like this:
Thankfully, the colour loss does not mean that the animal is “ruined” – it still retains its key identifying characters and DNA – they just looks a bit less exiting for us non-sea-star-experts!
We’ll finish in the “photo booth” and get the tissue sampling done over the next couple of days, and hopefully our faded stars will shine (as barcode vouchers) after all!
Stay tuned for updates.
We are running a calendar count down from the 1st to the 24th of December on our collections blog, and MIWA is frequently featured!